Khiva (Uzbek. Xiva) is a city in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan, the administrative center of the Khiva region. In 1997, Khiva celebrated its 2500th anniversary. The historic inner city of Khiva surrounded by powerful walls – the pearl of […]
Khiva (Uzbek. Xiva) is a city in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan, the administrative center of the Khiva region. In 1997, Khiva celebrated its 2500th anniversary.
The historic inner city of Khiva surrounded by powerful walls – the pearl of the Khorezm oasis – has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Khiva in antiquity and early Middle Ages
Uzbeks. Khiva, 1913.
The later legend about the founding of the city tells that it grew up around the Kheivak well, the water from which had an amazing taste, and the well was dug by the order of Shem, the son of the biblical Noah.
In Ichan-Kala (the inner city of Khiva) this well can be seen even today. Khiva was one of the cities of ancient Khorezm, which was a large state located in the west of Central Asia, south of the Aral Sea.
According to archaeological data, Khiva was founded over 2500 years ago. In ancient times, the city was known as Kheivak. The information from written sources about the founding of Khiva is most often legendary. In them, the appearance of the city is associated with the name of the biblical Solomon, and according to other versions of Noah. Legends about Khiva were included in the essays of Russian and European travelers (A. Vamberi, E. Zhelyabuzhsky). The history and appearance of the city have always amazed not only travelers, but also its conquerors. These stories, generated by the then prevalent theories of the military and some Orientalists about the Aryans and their homeland, in this form sometimes fell on the pages of popular literature.
In its history, the city experienced the Achaemenid conquest and periods of prosperity, when the borders of ancient Khorezm extended to Colchis.
From 305 to 995, Khorezm, which included Khiva, was ruled by the Afrigid dynasty. ), Vazamar (second half of the 3rd century AD) and others. It is generally accepted that the Afrigids professed the Khorezmian version of Zoroastrianism until Islamization under Abdallah ibn Turksabas (Khorezm subdued Kuteiba ibn Muslim to Muslim influence in 712, intervening in the local internecine war). It is believed that the rulers of Khorezm developed a cult of the goddess Ardvisura-Anakhita; images of her symbols are found on coins from the 2nd century BC. to the VIII century A.D.
The Khorezmians buried the bones of the deceased in ossuaries, which were placed in naus (such as mausoleums). Many dozens of various ossuaries were found in Khorezm. Among them are the oldest in Central Asia (the turn of the 5th-4th centuries BC). In Sassanian Iran, where Zoroastrianism was a dogmatic religion, there are almost no ossuaries and naus found. Obviously, this tradition was characteristic of the Zoroastrians of Central Asia, namely Khorezm. In 712, Khiva was captured by the Arabs of Kuteiba ibn Muslim.
The first Arab raids on Khorezm date back to the 7th century. In 712, Khorezm was conquered by the Arab commander Kuteiba ibn Muslim, who perpetrated a cruel reprisal against the Khorezm aristocracy. Kuteiba unleashed especially cruel repressions on the scientists of Khorezm. As al-Biruni writes in the Chronicles of Past Generations, “and by all means scattered and destroyed Kuteiba all who knew the writing of the Khorezmians, who kept their legends, all the scientists who were among them, so that all this was covered with darkness and there is no true knowledge about what was known from their history at the time of the coming of Islam to them. ”
Khiva in the 9th-15th centuries
The end of the reign of the Afrigid dynasty was laid in 995, when Mamun ibn Muhammad came to power and founded a new dynasty of Khorezmshahs Mamunids with the capital in Kunya-Urgench. In 995-1017, Khorezm was ruled by the Mamunid dynasty. In 1017, Khorezm became dependent on Mahmud Ghaznevi. In the second half of the 11th century, Khiva became dependent on the Seljukids. In 1097, the Anushteginid dynasty came to power.
The main Turkic-speaking ethnos of Khorezm were the Turks. The outstanding scientist and ethnographer Biruni (973-1048) in his works gives the names of the Turkic months and Turkic medicinal herbs that were used by the Turkic population of Khorezm. Biruni, in his work “Monuments of Past Generations”, written in Khorezm around 1000, gives the Turkic names of the years according to the animal cycle, which were used by the Turkic population of Khorezm: Sichkan, Od, Bars, Tushkan, Lui, Ilan, Yunt, Kui, Pichin, Tagigu , tunguz. In the same work, he gives the names of the months in Turkic: ulug-oh, kichik-oh, birinchi-oh, ikkinchi-oh, uchinchi-oh, turtinchi-oh, beshinchi-oh, oltinchi-oh, yetinchi-oh, sakkizinchi- oh, tokkuzinchi-oh, uninchi-oh.
In the 9th-12th centuries, in addition to many Islamic educational institutions, large centers of science successfully operated in Khorezm: astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, etc.
The “House of Wisdom” (actually the Academy of Sciences), which was created in Baghdad by the then ruler Al-Mamun, was led by a native of Khorezm, Muhammad-al-Khorezmi. Already in the 9th century, his fundamental works on mathematics, geography, geodesy were known in Europe and have not lost their significance to this day.
Al-Biruni, Najm ad-din Kubra and other scientists and theologians, whose names are also associated with Khorezm, left a huge scientific legacy. Najmu-d-din Abu-l-Janib Ahmad ibn Umar al-Khorezmi, known as Najm ad-din al-Kubra (1145, Khiva – 1221, Urgench), a Khorezm mystic and theologian, author of numerous philosophical and theological treatises, was born in Khiva , Sufi sheikh and poet.
A famous scholar from Khiva was Shihab ad-Din Abu Sa’d ibn ‘Imran. He was an outstanding jurist, mufti of the ash-Shafi’i persuasion, had knowledge of lexicology, medicine, dialectics, linguistics and the science of good governance, taught in 5 madrasahs of Khorezm. And he was killed by the Mongols.
In 1220, the city was destroyed by the armies of Genghis Khan.
The Islamization and Turkization of Khorezm was reflected in the creation of literary, scientific and religious works and the translation of Arabic and Persian works into the Turkic language. In Istanbul, the Suleymaniye library, the Koran is kept with an interlinear translation into Turkic, made in Khorezm and is dated (January – February 1363).
The famous Khorezm Turkic poet, writer of the late XIII – early XIV centuries. there was Rabguzi (real name Nasr ad-din, son of Burkhan ad-din). The main work of Rabguzi, “The Tales of Rabguz about the Prophets” (“Kissai Rabguzi”, 1309-10), consists of 72 tales on religious themes, mainly from the Bible and the Koran. The stories are didactic in nature, they preach virtue and condemn vices.
Another famous Khorezm Turkic poet was Hafiz Khorezmi, who in 1353 wrote a poem in the Turkic language “Muhabbat-name”. Two copies of the poem have survived: an early one, made in Uyghur script in 1432, and the second, rewritten in Arabic script in 1508–09. The Uyghur list consists of 10 letters-poems in the Turkic language. Both manuscripts are in the British Museum.
Khiva in the era of the Uzbek Shibanid dynasty
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