General information Kokand is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia. It has been known under various names since the 10th century, but it flourished in the 18th century. For its own situation, the Kokand Khanate replaced 29 rulers, […]
Kokand is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia. It has been known under various names since the 10th century, but it flourished in the 18th century.
For its own situation, the Kokand Khanate replaced 29 rulers, the most familiar khan was the final one – Khudar Khan, famous for his own ruthlessness and greed. During his reign, he lost the throne 4 times and won it back again. He did a lot to decorate the city: during his reign, guzars, mosques, madrasahs were built.
Then the city became the capital of the Kokand Khanate, which existed from 1709 to 1876 on the territory of modern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (East Turkestan).
Since 1876 – a part of the Fergana region of the Russian Empire, then – the Uzbek SSR, now – a part of the Fergana region of Uzbekistan.
Kokand connects 2 main routes to the Fergana Valley: 1 – north-west through the mountains to Tashkent and the other – west through Khujand (Tajikistan).
Kokand has preserved a very ancient structure, it consists of new and old parts. The new city in the 19th century was full of commercial enterprises, administrative buildings, banks and industrialists’ mansions.
In the old part of the city, the khan’s palace – “Urda”, monuments of folk residential architecture, mosques, madrasahs and memorial buildings of the 19th – early 20th centuries have been preserved.
In the state of Davan
Archaeological studies of the monuments of Muyi-Mubarak, Tepakurgan, Eski Kurgan and others located in the city of Kokand have found traces of civilization.
In Muyi-Mubarak, several clay shards of the 5th-6th centuries were found; a clay platform, which in the 5th-7th centuries served as the foundation of a monumental building; the remains of the fortress wall, erected in the 1st-2nd centuries from pakhsa and adobe bricks, which functioned for over 400 years. At a depth of 5 meters, a lower cultural layer with materials from 2000 years ago was discovered.
In Tepakurgan, located in the center of the city, as in Muyi Mubarak, a platform of the early medieval period was discovered, which served as the foundation of a monumental castle with semicircular towers.
A rich collection of pottery with red engobe, which dates back to the 2nd-1st centuries BC, was obtained from the lower layers. All of it was made on a potter’s wheel by the city’s skilled craftsmen.
In general, archaeological materials indicate that under these 2 monuments (Muyi-Mubarak and Tepakurgan) the ancient history of Kokand is hidden.
The resulting artifacts give reason to say and speculate that no later than the 7th century BC. a certain part of the territory of the present city was developed for irrigated agriculture.
And the city appeared no later than the 2nd half of the 2nd century BC. and was the center of the Sokh oasis, that is, the capital of the regional possession, which was part of the confederate state of Fergana (“Davan” of the Chinese chronicles).
Khavokand or Khokand
Arab geographers and travelers of the 10th century, Al-Istakhri and Ibn Haukal mention the city of Hovakend or Khokand, which, in terms of distance from the Shash River (Syrdarya) and from Askha, corresponds to the present Kokand.
According to written sources and local legends, in Fergana, already in the era of its conquest by the Arabs, who established Islam here (that is, already at the beginning of the VIII century), there were the ancient cities of Akhsy-Kent, Kubo (Kuva), Rishtan, Osh, Bab (Pop) , Kasan (Kashan), Mo-ar-gilon (Margelan), Andigan (Andijan), Uzgent, Isfara, Varukh, Sokh, Kanibadam and Khojent.
Arab travelers of the 10th century also mention many other cities and generally notice that, in addition to cities, there were many large villages in Fergana.
Khavokand or Khokand, located on the Great Silk Road between India and China on the one hand and Persia and the Middle East on the other, may have been a major trade center of its time. In the 13th century, it was destroyed by the Mongols.
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